28 November 1948, Stalin signed a secret decision of the Bureau of the USSR Council of Ministers: “the Jewish anti-fascist Committee immediately dissolve, the press the Committee to close the case of the Committee to pick up.” The next day the MGB operatives were searched and sealed the room.
An example of an extract from the minutes of the meeting of the Troika. It dates from 1937. After the war, “threes” was not, but the repression continued. Photo from archive of Igor Kuznetsov
The head of the Committee, artistic Director of the State Jewish theater Solomon Mikhoels by that time was dead. Arrested 17 of the 20 members of the Presidium of the Committee, including writers Peretz Markish, Lev Kvitko, Seeds Galkina and David gofshtein, the first Soviet woman-academician Lina Shtern, former head of the Soviet information Bureau, Solomon Lozovsky, the head physician of Botkin hospital, Boris Shimeliovich, Benjamin Zuskin the actor, poet Itsik Fefer.
Just in case attracted 125 people, of which 23 were shot and six died in prison.
Arrests have been reported. It looked as if famous people simply disappeared. Alexander Fadeyev and Ilya Ehrenburg during foreign travel had to lie, if they had recently seen colleagues in Moscow.
The moor has done his job
The Jewish anti-fascist Committee, originally consisting of 47 people, mainly intellectuals, was established on 7 April 1942 to create a positive image of the USSR in the United States and Britain and, as one would say now, fundraising.
With the task Committee has done. Contacts were established, collected $ 33 million in donations. In America, the Jewish Council for aid Russia was headed by albert Einstein.
By 1948, relations between the USSR and the West hopelessly deteriorated, the need for the existence of the JAC has disappeared, and the former merits of the activists they also put the blame.
The main reason for the opals Committee is often called the letter to Stalin with the idea to create a Jewish Autonomous oblast in Crimea. However, between-treatment (February 1944) and the beginning of repressions has been almost five years.
The interrogation and sentencing without evidence
Illiterate, the investigator beat writer Abram Kogan when he became the ruler of an error in the Protocol’s own interrogation: so, you know Russian language, and books in Yiddish was invented?
As argued at trial, Itzik Feffer, the investigator Likhachev frankly explained to him: “I’ll break your neck, or I’ll cut your head off. If we arrested you, we’ll find the crime.”
The other investigator on the case of the JAC, Vladimir Komarov, subsequently arrested because of the proximity to the fall from grace the Minister of state security Abakumov, wrote from prison to Stalin: “I Especially hated and was ruthless with the Jewish nationalists, which saw the most dangerous and vicious enemies.”
Despite the torture, a middle-aged intellectuals did not sign a confession of espionage and terrorism, so the court, which began may 8, 1952, made closed.
At the trial there was unprecedented event: the Chairman of the military Collegium of the Supreme court Lieutenant-General Alexander chepcov found the charges unproven and appealed to the Central Committee for permission to return the case for further investigation.
“You want us to put on my knees in front of these criminals. The sentence approved by the people, business, the Politburo was engaged three times. Perform solution!” — said the Secretary of the Central Committee George Malenkov.
14 of the 15 defendants were sentenced to death. Sent to GULAG only academician stern, physiologist of world renown in 1925, who arrived in the USSR from Switzerland to build socialism.
As it turned out, Feffer many years secretly collaborated with the KGB, but it did not save him.
A family business?
Joseph Stalin and Lazar Kaganovich. Photo: Wikipedia
How to explain the behavior of Stalin?
Imbibed from childhood domestic anti-Semitism (his personal Secretary Boris Bazhanov, who fled in 1928 to the West, claimed that the cartridge was already released in a narrow range corresponding remarks)?
Old accounts with Trotsky and other “Leninist guard”?
Opinion that the Jews are the weak link in case of war with America?
In our days we can hear that the persecution they experienced in the Soviet Union, became a payback for their active participation in the establishment of Soviet power and the destruction of old Russia. However, the post-war impact was not at the party and the KGB elite — with the to cut back in the 1930-ies — a at the innocent Jewish intellectuals: scientists, doctors, writers.
Historian Leonid Mlechin says that the root cause of the JAC case was the deteriorating health of Stalin, or rather, what it’s been written about Western correspondents in Moscow. The old dictator is disturbing.
The basis for the speculation was the appearance and frequent disappearance of public space. But the leader of this explanation is not satisfied. He was sure that someone from the environment to the foreigners leaking information about his medical problems.
The MGB found arranged for Host explanation: the information goes through the relatives of his deceased wife. At the end of 1947, arrested the sister of Nadezhda Alliluyeva, Anna, wife of her late brother, Paul Eugene, and their daughter Kira and her second husband Eugene engineer Nicholas Molochnikova.
Beaten during interrogations Milkmen remembered that his wife was a friend, and have one daughter, who married who worked as a chauffeur at the American Embassy Vitaly Zaitsev.
This Zaitsev allegedly “spun around Kira” and asked her about the details of Stalin’s life. Hares arrested soon “confessed” that he was an American spy.
Received the necessary evidence and Yevgenia Alliluyeva. She stated that the personal life of Stalin was interested in her friend Dr. Isaak Goldstein of the Institute of Economics of the Academy of Sciences.
“I began to cruelly beaten with a rubber truncheon, were subsequently Goldstein. — Tormented day and night interrogations, I began to incriminate himself and of other persons”.
Goldstein testified on the head of the historical Commission of the JAC Zachary Greenberg and the head of the Committee Solomon Mikhoels, who supposedly “showed an increased interest in the personal life of the head of the Soviet government than interested American Jews.”
The Murder Of Mikhoels
Solomon Mikhoels. Photo: wikimedia.org
When 27 December 1947, the Minister of state security Viktor Abakumov and his first Deputy Sergey Ogoltsov reported all this to Stalin, he said that the JAC is “the center of anti-Soviet propaganda and supplying anti-Soviet information to foreign intelligence agents”. Then, according to Ogoltsova, had received oral instruction to arrange Mikhoels car accident.
Greenberg died in prison. Mikhoels was killed in Minsk in the night of January 13, 1948. With him eliminated friend of Mikhoels, and the theater critic and agent of the MGB of Vladimir Golubov, lured him to a secluded cottage — knew too much. The KGB faked their death under the wheels of a truck under the influence.
All participants of murder have secretly awarded medals.
In the 1990-ies journalist Leonid Mlechin was shot in Minsk, a documentary about the murder of Mikhoels. The leadership of the Belarusian KGB asked him to speak. Mlechin subsequently learned that the back row among the veterans, there was a person behind the wheel of the truck crushed the Mikhoels.
How it all began?
Alexander Fadeev. Photo: wikipedia.org
However, the JAC was not an isolated episode, and the first disturbing calls have sounded before.
“State anti-Semitism in the Soviet Union began suddenly — oddly enough, during the war against Nazi Germany. It seemed that this infection crept through the front line and covered the top item,” wrote historian Michael Voslensky.
In 1943, operated a secret instruction not to take Jews in the party apparatus and work-related trips abroad.
In the same year, Svetlana Alliluyeva fell in love with screenwriter Alexei Kapler. Stalin sent him to the GULAG, may have saved the life of fears that the daughter is not perpetrated on a something for example mother.
When sue married a MGIMO student Grigori Morozov, also Jewish, his father waved his hand, but told my son not to face him. Three years later she broke up with Morozov and henchman of Stalin, Georgy Malenkov took this as a signal to immediately separated his daughter from her husband Vladimir Shamberger. Chambergo not even allowed to say goodbye to his wife and put his stuff outside the door and handed a new passport without an appointment on marriage.
Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers on mechanical engineering Vyacheslav Malyshev wrote in his diary Stalin’s words, spoken at a meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee 1 December 1952: “Every Jewish nationalist is the agent of American intelligence”.
However, until January 1953, when turned “case of doctors” publicly about Jews is not bad told.
In the spring of 1949, the Deputy head of the propaganda Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) Fedor, Golovenchenko said the meeting of party activists in Podolsk, near Moscow: “we talk and cosmopolitanism. What is it, to put it simply, working? This means that all sorts of Moishe and Abram wanted to take our seats!” Too blunt apparatchik was expelled from the Central Committee and sent to the head of Department at the Moscow pedagogical Institute.
Officially, the fight against “rootless cosmopolitanism” and “foreign adulation”.
In June 1948, the first Secretary of the Frunze district Committee of Moscow, the future Minister of culture of the USSR Ekaterina Furtseva convened a meeting of the Directors and secretaries of party committees of scientific institutions and gave them a dressing down for “a weak formulation of the ideological and political education of scientific staff”. The word “Jews” were not mentioned even once, but the names of the “politically immature” scientists were completely Rubinstein, osherovich, Shifman, Gurvich.
January 28, 1949, in “Pravda” appeared installation article “About one anti-Patriotic group of theater critics”, which were transferred entirely Jewish surname and was first used the term “rootless cosmopolitanism”. Chief editor Pyotr Pospelov recalled that the phrase dictated to him by Stalin personally.
18 Feb 1949, in the Central house of writers has opened a three-day meeting of playwrights and theater critics.
“This counter-revolutionary activities, put together by an organized group” — waistlevel from the rostrum of the head of the Union of writers Alexander Fadeev.
“I was summoned to the Central Committee. What could I do?” — he lamented afterwards.
Playwright Anatoly Surov wrote anti-American play “Green street”, staged at the Moscow art Theater and was awarded the Stalin prize in 1949. A few months later, a scandal erupted: it emerged that the text for it bungled “ghostwriters” from the remaining piece of bread “cosmopolitans”. “The hope of Soviet drama” was expelled from the party and from the writers ‘ Union — not so much for plagiarism, but for the fact that the wrong people were contacted.
After the war, and the “struggle against cosmopolitanism” covered all spheres of life. Many people enthusiastically joined in the persecution — mainly, in the calculation to take the vacated seats.
Professor of history Sergey Dmitriev in his diary he described how in March 1949 at the meeting of the scientific Council of the history faculty of Moscow state University discussed measures to clean up the faculty from the cosmopolitan. “What, in your opinion, is the basis of all this?” asked Dmitriev, one of his colleagues. “War — with conviction he replied. — We need to train people for a new war. She is coming”.
July 4, 1950 the head of state security Abakumov (soon he himself arrested and accused of collusion with the “Jewish nationalists”) Malenkov sent a memo about that in Moscow the clinic of medical nutrition of 43 scientific education 36 the Jews and the histories is not filled in the column “nationality”.
In April 1951 on the report of Abakumov was removed from the post of head of the Higher cavalry officer school and was sent to serve far away from Moscow the General-Lieutenant Nikolay Orlikowski. Base: Orlikowski had Jewish friends, and ex officio was responsible for preparing horses for the host and commander of the parade on red square — as if something happens.
The Chairman of the Board of the composers ‘ Union Tikhon Khrennikov was found in my mailbox an anonymous letter: “Tisha-burdock saves the Jews.”
In February 1952, received 25 years imprisonment, the first Secretary of the Birobidzhan regional Committee of party Alexander Bakhmutsky: he encouraged the study of Jewish history, promoted the teaching and publishing of books in Yiddish, was present in Moscow at the funeral of Mikhoels and offered to raise the status of Jewish Autonomous region to Republic.
The famous microbiologist and physician, a colleague of Pasteur and Mechnikov, member of the gamaleja Nikolay, 90 years nothing feared, in 1949, wrote to Stalin: “against the Jews was something wrong at present in our country. Anti-Semitism comes from high officials…”
Vyacheslav Molotov, Polina Zhemchuzhina and their daughter Svetlana. Photo: wikipedia.org
Suffered and Pauline Pearl — the wife of an influential Minister of foreign Affairs of the USSR Vyacheslav Molotov. Apparently, the couple loved each other.
It is obvious that persecution Gem Stalin began not because of her but because of her husband, which, by many indications, was preparing to get rid of.
For claims his wife were involved in the same Jewish theme.
27 Dec 1948, Abakumov and the Chairman of the party control Committee Matthew Skuratov sent Stalin note “Of politically misconduct Gem”: “Around it were grouped the Jewish nationalists, and has been an Advisor and advocate them.”
“Misconduct” is expressed, in particular, in contacts with Mikhoels and Feffer, visiting in March 1945 Moscow synagogue and that after the establishment of diplomatic relations between the USSR and Israel, she went on reception to the Ambassador Golda Meir and talked to the Yiddish.
Rumors attributed Gem: “Now we have a homeland”, but believe it is difficult.
December 29, the Politburo, Pearl was expelled from the party. Molotov abstained, and then the penitential letter to Stalin admitted his behavior is politically incorrect.
At the meeting Stalin in the presence of Molotov read out the embossed two former aides of the Pearl of the testimony that they supposedly worked with her group sex.
January 26, 1949 she was arrested and exiled to Kustanai oblast. No contact with her husband’s support could not only Beria sometimes whispered in his ear: “Polina is alive.”
Along with Jewel put ten of her relatives and former colleagues. Sister and brother died in prison.
In 1955, the General Secretary of the Communist party of Israel, Samuel Mikunis, met Molotov in the Kremlin hospital and asked why he had not stood up for his wife. “Because I had to submit to party discipline”, — said Molotov.
January 21, 1953, the investigators of MGB in addition to the anti-Soviet propaganda and agitation showed Pearl the charge for firing the article “treason”. Around the same time the Deputy head of the MGB Ryumin, interrogating the arrested KGB Lieutenant Colonel Igor Maklakovo, said a recent colleague, “Pearl — the head of the Jewish nationalists in Moscow and the Israeli spy”.
Her and Molotov was saved by Stalin’s death.
The dictator died on 5 March. Four days later Molotov was 63. Beria on behalf of colleagues asked what he would like to receive as a gift. Molotov replied: “Return Pauline!”
The couple lived together for 17 years, remaining steadfast Stalinists.
Nuclear mushroom ground explosion RDS-1 (first Soviet atomic bomb), on 29 August 1949. Photo: wikipedia.org
The only group of Soviet Jews, is not affected by the persecution, was physics.
Since 1947, the “party of scientists”, have not found a place in the atomic project, launched a struggle against “bourgeois-idealistic” theories of relativity and quantum mechanics.
Their stronghold became the physics Department of Moscow state University. Dean Vladimir kessenikh famous statement that worthless Soviet scientists to publish their works in English.
In “servile admiration of Western science” accused Peter Kapitsa (which, however, was a Jew), Abram Ioffe, Vitaly Ginzburg, Lev Landau, Alexander Frumkin, Jacob Frenkel, Evgeny Lifshitz, and many others.
December 4, 1948, the Central Committee Secretariat decided to prepare all-Union conference of physicists. Chairman of the organizing Committee Deputy Minister of higher education Alexander Topchiev explained the problem: “Our meeting should be at the level of the session of VASKHNIL (all-Union Meeting of the Academy of agricultural Sciences, 31 July — 7 August, 1948, where they were reproach “reactionary pseudoscience” of genetics. — Approx. Bi-bi-si).
However, the first meeting was postponed from late January to March, and then was abolished altogether.
In March 1949 the Minister of higher education Kaftanov, Sergei sent to the list taught at the universities physics professors-Jews, but none of them touched.
It turns out, the scientific head of the atomic project, Igor Kurchatov lapidary explained his head Lavrenty Beria: “If the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, prohibit, and bombs will not.” He reported to Stalin. This argument was intelligible.
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